Medical Tourism Research Center

Business Tourism

Scholarly Journal Articles

Akbulut, Y., Sarp, N. and Ugurluoglu, E. (2007).  Reform of the health care system in Turkey: A review of universal health insurance. World Hospitals and Health Services 43(1), 1617-1623.

Alvarez, M. M., Chanda, R. and Smith. R. D. (2011). The potential for bi-lateral agreements in medical tourism: A qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives from the UK and India. Globalization and Health, 7, 11.

Asadi, R., & Daryaei, M. (2011).  Strategies for development of Iran health tourism.  European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(3), 329-344.

Basala, S., & Klenosky, D. (2001).  Travel-style preferences for visiting a novel destination:  A conjoint investigation across the novelty-familiarity continuum.  Journal of Travel Research, 40(2), 172-182. doi: 10.1177/004728750104000208

Bennett, M, B., & King, L. Milner. (2004).  The Health resort sector in Australia: A positioning study.  Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 122-137.  doi: 10.1177/135676670401000203

Bochaton, A. (2015). Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 364-373. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.022

Brouwer, W., van Exel, J., Hermans, B., & Stoop, A. (2003).  Should I stay or should I go?  Waiting lists and cross-border care in the Netherlands.  Health Policy, 63(3), 289-298.  doi:10.1016/S0168-8510(02)00120-3

Cameron, K., Crooks, V. A., Chouinard, V., Snyder, J., Johnston, R., & Casey, V. (2014). Motivation, justification, normalization: Talk strategies used by Canadian medical tourists regarding their choices to go abroad for hip and knee surgeries. Social Science & Medicine, 106, 93-100. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.047

Carabello, L. (2008).  A medical tourism primer for U.S. physicians.  Medical Practice Management, 23(5), 291-294.

Carabello, L. (2013). U.S. domestic medical tourism delivers sustainable tourism for America’s cities and states. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality, 2, 114. doi: 10.4172/2167-0269.1000114.

Chambers, D. and McIntosh, B. (2008). Using authenticity to achieve competitive advantage in medical tourism in the English-speaking Caribbean. Third World Quarterly, 29, 919-937. doi: 10.1080/01436590802106056

Chuang, T. C., Liu, J. S., Lu, L. Y. Y., & Lee, Y. (2014). The main paths of medical tourism: From transplantation to beautification. Tourism Management, 45, 49-58. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2014.03.016

Cohen, E. (2010). Medical travel-a critical assessment. Tourism Recreation Research, 35, 225-237.

Connell, J. (2006).  Medical tourism: Sea, sun, sand and … surgery.  Tourism Management, 27(6), 1093-1100.  doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2005.11.005

Connell, J. (2011).   A new inequality?  Privatisation, urban bias, migration and medical tourism.  Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 52(3), 260-271.  doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8373.2011.01454.x

Crooks, V. A., Cameron, K., Chouinard, V., Johnston, R., Snyder, J., & Casey, V. (2012).  Use of medical tourism for hip and knee surgery in osteoarthritis: A qualitative examination of distinctive attitudinal characteristics among Canadian patients. BCM Health Services Research, 12(1), 417-426. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-417

Crooks, V. A., Kingsbury, P., Snyder, J., & Johnston, R. (2010).  What is known about the patient's experience of medical tourism?  A scoping review.   BMC Health Services Research, 10, 266-277.  doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-266

Crooks, V. A. and Snyder, J. (2010). Regulating medical tourism. The Lancet, 376, 1465-1466.

Crush, J., & Chikanda, A. (2015). South–South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 313-320. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.06.025

De Arellano, Annette B Ramírez. (2011).  Medical tourism in the Caribbean.  Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 36(2), 289-297.

Demicco, F. J. & Cetron, M. (2006).  Club medic.  Asia Pacific Biotech News, 10(10), 527-531.  doi: 10.1142/S0219030306000747

Dhariwal, R. (2005).  Tourists arrivals in India: How important are domestic disorders?  Tourism Economics, 11(2), 185-205.  doi:10.5367/0000000054183522

Dunn, P. (2007).  Medical Tourism Takes Flight.  Hospitals & Health Networks. 81(11), 40-44.

Dunn, P. (2007).  An American in Bangkok.  Hospitals & Health Networks,  81(11), 43.

Eissler, L. A., & Casken, J. (2013). Seeking health care through international medical tourism. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 45(2), 177-184. doi:10.1111/jnu.12014

Fernandez, L. S., Byard, D., Lin, C. C., Benson, S., & Barbera, J. A. (2002).  Frail elderly as disaster victims: emergency management strategies.  Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 17(2), 67-74.  doi: 10.1017/S1049023X00000200

Fottler, M. D., Malvey, D., Asi, Y., Kirchner, S., & Warren, N. A. (2014). Can inbound and domestic medical tourism improve your bottom line? Identifying the potential of a U.S. tourism market. Journal of Healthcare Management, 59(1), 49-63.

Fried, B. & Harris, D. (2007).  Managing healthcare services in the global marketplace.  Frontiers of Health Services Management, 24(2), 3-18.

Gan, L., & Frederick, J. (2011).  Medical tourism in Singapore:  A structure-conduct-performance analysis.  Journal of Asia-Pacific Business, 12(2), 1-30.  doi:10.1080/10599231.2011.558440

Gitelson, R., & Kerstetter, D. (1994).  The influence of friends and relatives in travel decision-making.  Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 3(3), 59-68.  doi: 10.1300/J073v03n03_04

Glinos, I. A., & Baeten, R. (2014). Dream vs. reality: Seven case-studies on the desirability and feasibility of cross-border hospital collaboration in Europe. Social Science & Medicine, 117, 18-24. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.07.015

Goldbach, A. R. and West, D. R. (2010). Medical tourism: A new venture of healthcare. Journal of Global Business Issues, 4(2), 43-44.

Gooding, S. K. S. (1995). The relative importance of information sources in consumers’ choice of hospitals. Journal of Ambulatory Care Marketing, 6(1), 99-108. doi: 10.1300/J273v06n01_07

Goodrich, J. N. & Goodrich, G. E. (1987).  Health-care tourism: An exploratory study.  Tourism Management, 8(3), 217-222.  doi: 10.1016/0261-5177(87)90053-7

Hanefeld, J., Horsfall, D., Lunt, N. and Smith, R. (2013). Medical tourism: A cost or benefit to the NHS? PLoS ONE, 8(10). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070406

Hanefeld, J., Smith, R., Horsfall, D., & Lunt, N. (2014). What do we know about medical tourism? A review of the literature with discussion of its implications for the UK National Health Service as an example of a public health care system. Journal of Travel Medicine, 21(6), 410-417. doi:10.1111/jtm.12147

Hanefeld, J., Lunt, N., Smith, R., & Horsfall, D. (2015). Why do medical tourists travel to where they do? The role of networks in determining medical travel. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 356-363. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.05.016

Henderson, J.  (2004).  Healthcare tourism in Southeast Asia.  Tourism Review International,  7(3-4), 111-121.

Henderson, J. C. (2004).  Paradigm shifts: National tourism organizations and education and healthcare tourism.  The case of Singapore.  Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(2), 170-180.  doi: 10.1057/palgrave.thr.6040016

Holliday, R., Bell, D., Cheung, O., Jones, M., & Probyn, E. (2015). Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 298-304. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.06.047

Hopkins, L., Labonte, R., Runnels, V. and Packer, C. (2010). Medical tourism today: What is the state of existing knowledge? Journal of Public Health Policy, 31(2), 185-198. doi: 10.1057/jphp.2010.10

Horowitz, M. D., & Rosensweig, J. A. (2007).  Medical tourism - health care in the global economy.   The Physician Executive.  33(6), 24-30.

Horowitz, M. D., & Rosensweig, J. A. (2008).  Medical tourism vs. traditional international medical travel: A tale of two models.  International Medical Travel Journal. 1-14.

Huan, T. C., Beaman, J., & Shelby, L. (2004).  No escape natural disaster- mitigating impacts on tourism.  Annals of Tourism Research, 31(2): 255-273.

Hume, L. F., & DeMicco, F. J. (2007).  Bringing hotels to healthcare: A Rx for success.  Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 8(1), 75-84. doi: 10.1300/J162v08n01_04

Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1982).  Toward a psychological theory of tourism motivation: a rejoinder.  Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2): 256-262.

Jacek, K. (2012).  Global medical tourism management: A needed research agenda?  Advances in Management, 5(1), 5-7.

Johnston, R., Crooks, V. A., Adams, K., Snyder, J. and Kingsbury, P. (2011).  An industry perspective on Canadian patients’ involvement in medical tourism: Implications for public health.  BMC Public Health, 11, 416. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-416

Johnston, R., Crooks, V. A., Snyder, J. and Kingsbury, P. (2010). What is known about the effects       of medical tourism in destination and departure countries? A scoping review. International Journal for Equity in Health, 9, 24. doi: 10.1186/1475-9276-9-24 

Kirkner, R. (2009). Liability concern balances medical tourism’s cost appeal. Managed Care, 18(6), 34.

Kogut, B. (2011).  Medical tourism: When money talks, individuals fly.  What to consider when financially incentivized to leave the country for major medical procedures.  Travel Law Quarterly, 3(1), 30-34.

Kramer, C.  (2010).  Medical tourism: alternatives to the United States healthcare system.  Undergraduate Economic Review, 7(1), 1-9.

Lagace, Martha. (2007).  The rise of medical tourism- Q&A with: Tarun Khanna.  Harvard Business School- Working Knowledge, 1-2.

Lee, Chew Ging. (2010).  Health care and tourism: Evidence from Singapore.  Tourism Management, 31(4), 486-488.  doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2009.05.002

Lee, K. S., Chia, G. K., & Chen, Y. C. (2005).  Developing medical tourism in Singapore-an analysis using principles from Sun Zi art of war.  MBA Dissertation.  Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Lee, M., Han, H., & Lockyer, T. (2012). Medical Tourism—Attracting Japanese tourists for medical tourism experience. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(1), 69-86. doi:10.1080/10548408.2012.638564

Loh, C. (2014). Health tourism on the rise? Evidence from the balance of payments statistics. The European Journal of Health Economics, 15(7), 759-766. doi:10.1007/s10198-013-0521-0

Lunt, N., & Carrera, P. (2010).  Medical tourism: Assessing the evidence on treatment abroad.  Maturitas, 66(1), 27-32. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.01.017

Lunt, N., Exworthy, M., Hanefeld, J., & Smith, R. D. (2015). International patients within the NHS: A case of public sector entrepreneurialism. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 338-345. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.04.027

Mak, A. H. N., Wong, K. K. F., & Chang, R. C. Y. (2009).  Health or self-indulgence? The motivations and characteristics of spa-goers.  International Journal of Tourism Research, (11) 2, 185–199.  doi: 10.1002/jtr.703

Margolis S. A., Al-Marzouqi S., Revel T., & Reed R. L. (2003). Patient satisfaction with primary health care in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Quality Health Care, 15(3), 241-249. doi:10.1093/intqhc/mzg036

Masi de Cassanova, E., & Sutton, B. (2013). Transnational body projects: Media representations of cosmetic surgery tourism in Argentina and the United States. Journal of World Systems Research. 19(1), 57-81.

Maung, N., & Walsh, J. (2014). Decision factors in medical tourism: Evidence from Burmese visitors to a hospital in Bangkok. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 6(2), 84-94.

Mazzaschi, A. (2011).  Surgeon and safari: Producing valuable bodies in Johannesburg.  Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 36(2), 303-312.

McMahon, G. T. (2004).  Coming to America—international medical graduates in the United States.  New England Journal of Medicine, 350(24), 2435-2437.  doi:10.1056/NEJMp038221

Mueller, H, & Kaufmann, E. (2001).  Wellness tourism: Market analysis of a special health tourism segment and implications for the hotel industry.  Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7(1), 5-17.  doi: 10.1177/135676670100700101

Nakra, P. (2011).  Could medical tourism aid health-care delivery?  Futurist, 45(2), 23-24.

Ormond, M. (2015). Solidarity by demand? Exit and voice in international medical travel – the case of Indonesia. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 305-312. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.06.007

Osterle, A., Balazs, P., & Delgado, J. (2009). Travelling for teeth: Characteristics and perspectives of dental tourism in Hungary. British Dental Journal, 206, 425-428. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.308

Österle, A., Johnson, T., & Delgado, J. (2013). A unifying framework of the demand for transnational medical travel. International Journal of Health Services, 43(3), 415-436. doi: 10.2190/HS.43.3.c

Page, Stephen J. (2009).  Current issue in tourism:  The evolution of travel medicine research: A new research agenda for tourism?  Tourism Management, 30(2), 149–157.  doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2008.04.011

Pocock, N. S. and Phua, K. H. (2011). Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: A conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore, and Malaysia. Globalization and Health, 7(12), 1-12.

Prayang G., & Hosany S. (2014). When Middle East meets West: Understanding the motives and perceptions of young tourists from United Arab Emirates. Tourism Management, 40, 35-45. doi: /10.1016/j.tourman.2013.05.003

Ramirez de Arellano, Annette B. (2007).  Patients without borders: The emergence of medical tourism.  International Journal of Health Services, 37(1), 193-198.  doi: 10.2190/4857-468G-2325-47UU

Reece, W. S. (2003).  Demographics of Hawaii leisure travel.  Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 27(2), 185-199.  doi: 10.1177/1096348003027002003

Reed, C. M. (2008). Medical tourism. Medical Clinics North America, 92(6), 1433-1446.

Reese, S. (2007). Care beyond borders. Managed Healthcare Executive, 17(5), 33-36.

Roberts, V., Calhoun, J., Jones, R., Sun, F. and Fottler, M. (2000). Globalization of U. S. health care services: Assessment and implementation. Health Care Management Review, 25(3), 24-35.

Samlan, S. (2010). Medical tourism: Opportunity to control escalating health care costs in the United States? Annals Health of Health Law Advanced Directive, 136(20), 136-147.

Schroth, L. and Khawaja, R. (2007). Globalization of healthcare. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 24(2), 19-30.

Seddighi, H., Nuttall, M., & Theocharous, A. (2001).   Does cultural background of tourists influence the destination choice?  An empirical study with special reference to political instability.  Tourism Management, 22(2), 181–191.   doi: 10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00046-7

Simpson, P. M., & Siguaw, J. A. (2008).  Perceived travel risks: The traveller perspective and manageability.  International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(4), 315-327.

Smith, M., & Kelly, C. (2006).  Wellness tourism.  Tourism Recreation Research, 31(1), 1-4.

Smith, R. W. (1987).  Leisure and disabled tourists: barriers to participation. Annals of Tourism Research, 14(3), 376-389.  doi: 10.1016/0160-7383(87)90109-5

Smith, R. (2008). Globalization: the key challenge facing health economics in the 21st century. Health Economics, 17, 1-3. doi: 10.1002/hec.1335.

Smith, R., Lunt, N., & Hanefeld, J. (2012). The implications of PIP are more than just cosmetic. The Lancet, 379(9822), 1180-1181. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60166-4

Stan, S. (2015). Transnational healthcare practices of Romanian migrants in Ireland: Inequalities of access and the privatisation of healthcare services in Europe. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 346-355. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.04.013

Stancioiu, A., Pargaru, I., Vladoi,A., Teodorescu, N., & Puiu, C. (2011).  Oltenia–Micro-destination of cultural and medical spa tourism.  Theoretical and Applied Economics, 18(12), 43-58.

Taleghani, M., Chirani, E., & Shaabani, A. (2011).  Health tourism, tourist satisfaction and motivation.  Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(4), 546-555.

Turner, L (2007).  Medical tourism: Family medicine and international health-related travel. Canadian Family Physician, October 1, 53(10), 1639 - 1641.

Turner, L. (2010). ‘Medical tourism’ and the global marketplace in health services: U. S. patients, international hospitals, and the search for affordable healthcare. International Journal of Health Services, 40(3), 443-467. doi: 10.2190/HS.40.3.d 

Turner, L. (2011). Quality in health care and globalization of health services: Accreditation and regulatory oversight of medical tourism companies. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 23(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzq078

Turner, L. (2012). Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel. Globalization & Health, 8(1), 16-26. doi:10.1186/1744-8603-8-16

Uysal, M., & Crompton, J. L. (1984).  Determinants of demand for international tourist flows to Turkey.  Tourism Management, 5(4), 288-297.  doi: 10.1016/0261-5177(84)90025-6

Vitalis, J. E. & Milton, G. A. (2009).  Medical travel – Threat or opportunity for U.S. providers?  It depends on your perspective.  Journal of the Center for Health Innovation. Winter, 10-13.  Retrieved from:

Vijaya, R. M.  (2010).  Medical tourism: Revenue generation or international transfer of healthcare problems?  Journal of Economic Issues, 44(1), 53-70.  doi: 10.2753/JEI0021-3624440103

Volz, D. (2008).  Reverse medical tourism.  Hospitals & Health Networks, 82(6), 12-14.

Whiteman, R. G. (2011). Medical tourism and bariatric surgery. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, 7(5), 652-654. doi:10.1016/j.soard.2011.05.016

Whittaker, A. A. (2008).  Pleasure and pain: Medical travel in Asia.  Global Public Health, 3(3), 271-290.  doi:10.1080/17441690701463936

Whittaker, A., & Chee, H. L. (2015). Perceptions of an ‘international hospital’ in Thailand by medical travel patients: Cross-cultural tensions in a transnational space. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 290-297. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.002

York, D. (2008).  Medical tourism: The trend toward outsourcing medical procedures to foreign countries.  Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 28(2), 99-102.  doi: 10.1002/chp

Yu, J., & Ko, T. (2012).  A cross-cultural study of perceptions of medical tourism among Chinese, Japanese and Korean tourists in Korea.  Tourism Management, 33(1), 80-88. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.02.002