1. After your topic has been approved and before you begin
reading, you should first
prepare a Working Bibliography of primary and secondary sources.
2. Compile a Working Bibliography by following these steps:
A. Using a standard survey text or BraveWeb,
one or more good (i.e. recent and by
reputable historians) secondary sources that deal with your topic. Or find an article in an
appropriate academic encyclopedia, like the Encyclopedia Britannica, which is
available on-line through UNC Pembroke's library (not a popular encyclopedia like the World
Book or an internet source like Wikipedia). From either source, obtain an overview of your topic;
write down facts, events, names, or questions that occur to you; these will become guides to future research.
Scan the author's notes and bibliography, writing down titles that appear useful. Note if there exist bibliographic
guides for your topic.
B. Using your list of facts, events, names, etc.
and your bibliographic entries, go to the library:
using the Catalog, Standard Secondary Works, Indexes, etc, prepare (on 3 x 5 cards or using
a word processor) a bibliography of available materials; it should include primary sources and
secondary sources (books and articles). A minimum of twenty-five (25) items is required, five
of which must be primary sources and five of which must be articles in scholarly journals (like
The American Historical Review or The Journal of Modern History).
Recommended Format (use
as your guide):
Lithography 1800-1850. The Techniques of Drawing on Stone in England and
France and Their Application in Works of Topography.
London: Oxford University Press, 1970
3. Locate each book or article and skim it, asking yourself: does
source help me with my topic?
If not, write a note on the back of your card and save the card; if so, write a brief annotation on
the card summarizing the content and indicating how it will help.
4. When you have completed your search and have located the required
prepare an annotated bibliography to be turned in; it will be the basis for your research and the
bibliography of your paper.
I. Primary Sources.
II. Secondary Sources.
1. James, John. Chartres.
The Masons Who Built a Legend. London: Routledge & Kegan
Paul, 1982. BX 4629.C47.C374.
careful analysis by an architect of how Chartres Cathedral was actually
painstakingly studying the stones used to build the cathedral, James has identified the work
of each separate team of masons and the sequence in which the parts of the building were
2. Panofsky, Erwin. Gothic
Architecture and Scholasticism. Cleveland and New York:
Meridian Books; The World Publishing Company, 1957.
profound and controversial essay in which Professor Panofsky parallels
of Gothic architecture with that of scholastic philosophy. In the words of Whitney S.
Stoddard, Panofsky "connects the more encyclopaedic and co-ordinated Summae of the
thirteenth century with the design of High Gothic cathedrals. According to Panofsky, the
controlling principle of Scholasticism and Gothic architecture is manifestatio: elucidation or
clarification. Starting in the early thirteenth century, the systematic articulation of the
Summae as books with an overall plan of chapters and subdivisions points to the
ambition of the Scholastics: the achievement of a comprehensive and explicit order in their
writings, 'a postulate of clarification for clarification's sake.' In general terms, Panofsky
equates this principle of clarification in the Summae with the 'principle of transparency'--a
dominant principle of High Gothic architecture."
B. Articles in Scholarly Journals.
1. Dow, Helen J. "The
Window," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes
20 (July 1957): 248-297.
[Annotation following the format above]
III. Internet Resources.
IV. Indexes/Research Aids Consulted:
1. The Humanities Index, 1950-1984.
researched: Chartres Cathedral; Gothic
Cathedral; etc . . . .
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