Medical Tourism Research Center

Ethics / Bioethics

Scholarly Journal Articles


Adams, K., Snyder, J., Crooks, V. A. and Johnston, R. (2013). Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: Medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism.  Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8(19). doi:10.1186/1747-5341-8-19

Amodeo, J. (2010). Medical refugees and the future of health tourism.  World Medical & Health Policy, 2(4), 65-81. doi: 10.2202/1948-4682.1103

Aruru, M., & Salmon, J. (2007).  Medical and pharmaceutical outsourcing to India: Ethical considerations and policy implications.  Journal of Pharmaceutical Finance, Economics and Policy, 16(3), 43-54.  doi: 10.1300/J371v16n03_03

Borman, E. (2004, Jan 10).  Health Tourism: Where healthcare, ethics, and the state collide.  British Medical Journal, 328(7431), 60-61.  doi: 10.1136/bmj.328.7431.60

Demme, R. A.  (2010).  Ethical concerns about an organ market.  Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(1), 46-50.

Dyer, C. (2003, Feb 1).  Swiss parliament may try to ban suicide tourism.  British Medical Journal, 326(7383), 242.

English, V., Gardner, J., Romano-Critchley, G., & Sommerville, A. (2001).  Ethics briefings.  Journal of Medical Ethics.  27, 284-285.

Gilmartin, M., & White, A. (2011).  Interrogating medical tourism: Ireland, abortion, and mobility rights.  Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 36(2), 275-280.

Gray, H., & S. Poland. (2008).  Medical tourism: Crossing borders to access health care.  Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Georgetown University, 18(2), 193-201.  doi: 10.1353/ken.0.0006

Gupta, A. S. (2008).  Medical tourism in India: winners and losers.  Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 5(1): 4-5.

Hunter, D. and Oultram, S. (2010). The ethical and policy implications of rogue medical tourism.  Global Social Policy, 10(3), 297-299. doi: 10.1177/14680181100100030204

Johnson, R. L., Saha, S., Arbelaez, J. J., Beach, M. C., & Cooper, L. A. (2004).  Racial and ethnic differences in patient perceptions of bias and cultural competence in health care.  Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19(2), 101-110. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30262.x

Laric, M., Pitta, D., & Katsanis, L. (2009).  Consumers concern for healthcare information privacy: A comparison of US and Canadian Perspectives.  Research in Healthcare Financial Management, 12(1), 93-111.

López, L. & Jha, A. K. (2013).  Outcomes for whites and blacks at hospitals that disproportionately care for black Medicare beneficiaries.  Health Services Research, 48(1), 114-128.  doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2012.01445.x

Lozanski, K. (2015). Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 383-390. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.003

Malchesky, P. S. (2011).  Organ replacement, medical device costs, and medical tourism: Globalization of the clinical application of artificial organ technologies?  Artificial Organs, 35(12), 1139-1141.  doi:10.1111/j.1525-1594.2011.01396.x

Mayberry, R. M., Mili, F., & Ofili, E. (2000).  Racial and ethnic differences in access to medical care.  Medical Care Research and Review, 57(suppl 1), 108-145.

Meghani, Z. (2011).  A robust, particularist ethical assessment of medical tourism.  Developing World Bioethics, 11(1), 16-29.  doi:

Meissner-Roloff, M., & Pepper, M. S. (2013).  Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.  Applied & Translational Genomics, 2, 22-27. doi:10.1016/j.atg.2013.05.001

Moghimehfar, F., & Nasr-Esfahani, M. (2011).  Decisive factors in medical tourism destination choice: A case study of Isfahan, Iran and fertility treatments.  Tourism Management, 32(6), 1431-1434.  doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.01.005

Murdoch, C., & Scott, C. (2010).  Stem cell tourism and the power of hope.  American Journal of Bioethics, 10(5), 16-23.  doi:

Pennings, G. (2002).  Reproductive tourism as moral pluralism in motion.  Journal of Medical Ethics, 28(6), 337-341.  doi:10.1136/jme.28.6.337

Pfeffer, N. (2011).  Eggs-ploiting women: A critical feminist analysis of the different principles in transplant and fertility tourism.  Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 23(5), 634-641.  doi:10.1016/j.rbmo.2011.08.005

Smith, K. (2012).  The problematization of medical tourism: A critique of neoliberalism.  Developing World Bioethics, 12(1), 1-9.  doi:10.1111/j.1471-8847.2012.00318.x

Snyder, J., & Crooks, V. (2012).  New ethical perspectives on medical tourism in the developing world.  Developing World Bioethics, 12(1), 3-6.  doi:10.1111/j.1471-8847.2012.00321.x

Snyder, J., Crooks, V. A., Adams, K., Kingsbury, P. and Johnston, R. (2011).  The “patient’s physician one-step removed”: The evolving roles of medical tourism facilitators.  Journal of Medical Ethics, 37(9), 530-534. doi: 10.1136/jme.2011.042374

Snyder, J., Crooks, V., & Johnston, R. (2012).  Perceptions of the ethics of medical tourism: Comparing patient and academic perspectives.  Public Health Ethics, 5(1), 38-46.  doi: 10.1093/phe/phr034

Somnath, S., Komaromy, M., Koepsell, T. D., & Bindman, A. B. (1999).  Patient-physician racial concordance and the perceived quality and use of health care.  Archives of Internal Medicine, 159(9), 997-1004.  doi:10.1001/archinte.159.9.997

Sury, J, S. Johnson, K. Ng, & Montriwat P. (2007).  Medical tourism: the unspoken risk benefit ratio.  Columbia University Journal of Bioethics.  

Turner, L. (2008).  'Medical tourism’ initiatives should exclude commercial organ transplantation.  Journal of Royal Society of Medicine. 101(8), 391-394.  doi: 10.1258/jrsm.2008.080058

Turner, L. (2009).  Commercial organ transplantation in the Philippines.  Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 18(2), 192-196.  doi: 10.1017/S0963180109090318

Van Hoof, W., Pennings, G., & De Sutter, P. (2015).  Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: A qualitative study into the experiences and moral perspectives of French women who go to Belgium for treatment with donor sperm.  Social Science & Medicine, 124, 391-397. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.09.018

Widdows, H. (2011).  Localized past, globalized future: Towards an effective bioethical framework using examples from population genetics and medical tourism.  Bioethics, 25(2), 83-91.  doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2010.01868.x