A number of different catalyst systems can work for the conversion of oils or fats (fuelstock) into biodiesel. Among the options are either acidic or basic homogeneous catalysts or acidic or basic heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalyst systems require catalysts which are liquids and heterogeneous catalysts are solids.
KOH – Potassium Hydroxide
NaOH – Sodium Hydroxide
Choline Hydroxide – phase transfer catalyst
TMAH – phase transfer catalyst
Excess methanol and sulfuric acid H2SO4
Solid resin acids